24. http://www .u neptie.org/p c/cp/library/ c at alogue/re gional_repor t s .htm UNEP-DTIE Recycling website (Access date, October 2006): http://www .u nep.fr/pc/pc/ w aste/recycling.htm W o rld Health Organization (WHO, 1 999): W a stes from Healt h care Activities. A v ailable onlin e [http://www . w ho.int/water_sanit a tion _health/medicalwaste/w astemanag] as of August 2006. 21
8. toxic waste such as waste m e dicine, hazardous w a stes such as infectious item s , used m e dical equipm ent, radioactive waste, and non-hazardou s waste. The m e dical waste stream often include s hig h quality m e tal and p l a s tics. Thus , there is co ncern tha t improper m a nagem e nt such as reuse activities without appropriate equipm ent and know ledge can cause direct harm to hum an he alth. Therefore, to avoid harm , environm entally sound m a nagem e nt of m e dical waste is an ur gent challenge in ad d i tion to the 3 R s in the oth e r ar eas. Because reg i onal econo m i c developm ent in Asia has stim ul ated p r oduction and con s um ption of electronic and electrical pr oducts and hom e appliances, quan tities of “E-waste”(electronic and electrical was t e) are expected to increase rapidly . While E-waste contains recyclab le precious m e tals and hig h quality pla s tics, po llution preventio n during the recycling process is necessary to deal with h azardous h e avy m e tals (used along with recy clable precious m e tals), Freon in therm a l insulation m a terials, and brom inated flam e retardan ts during the recycling process. P r om oting the 3Rs of E-waste carefu lly considering the above challenges, E-waste m a nage m e nt can be a successful example of re source recovery carried out along w ith along with pollution prevention practices. Discussions at th e Asia 3R Confer ence will ce ntre on sp e c if ic ac tions to addre ss the th re e concrete ch alleng es m e ntioned abo v e in th e prom otion of the 3Rs in Asia. W ith the expectation of using t h e results of the c onference in other 3R-related challenges, the conf erence will discu s s basic dire ctions of 3R prom otion in Asia. Also, the conf erence is expected to accelerate further in ternational coo p eration in th is area through the sh aring of inform ation and experiences on the progress of 3Rs-related programm e s and projects that ar e being im plem ented by countries and internationa l or ganizations in this region. Furtherm ore, prom otion of the 3Rs in Asia is expected to con t ribute to the global promotion of the 3Rs by providing inputs to international policy m a king processes such as the G8 Summit and the International Panel on Sustai nable Resource Managem e nt. On-going P r ogrammes and Pr ojects r e lated to the 3R Initiative in Asia In Asia, 3R activities have star ted to be im plem e n ted in each country . A l so, as show n below , several programm es and projects embodying th e concept of the 3Rs have been launched already by international or ganizations and others: Assistance for developm ent of na tion a l 3Rs stra tegies UNEP(United Nations Environm ental Progra mme), UNCRD(United Nations Centre for Regional Developm ent), Ministry of the Envi ronm ent of Japan, IGES (Institute for Global Environm ental S t rategies) and othe r s , have tak e n the le ad in exte nding assistance to Thailand, V i et Nam , Indonesia and other countries in th e developm ent of their respective national strategies for prom otion of the 3Rs. Envir onmentally sound management of E- waste in the Asia-P acific r e gion At the suggestion of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, activities directed toward environm entally sound m a nage m e nt of E-waste in the Asia-Pacific region have been in place since 2005. These include a pilo t project, capacity bu ilding in countries party to the Base l Convention, and the strengthening of public-priva te partnerships. Thirteen countries and one economy are taking part: Cambodia, Chin a, Hong Kong (China), India, Indonesia, M a l a ysi a , Pa pua Ne w G u i n e a , Phil i p pi ne s , Si ngapor e , Re publ i c of Kor e a , Sr i La nka , Tha i l a nd, 5
7. 2. Pr omotion of the 3Rs in Asia Importance of the 3Rs in Asia Asia has som e of the highest concentrations of production bases in th e entire world and is achieving rapid economic growth. The Asian region accounts for approxim a tely half the world’ s population and 26% of the world’ s GDP (UNDP 2 005 Hu m a n Developm en t Report). In Asia, m a ny signs of modernization are appeari ng at a rapid rate, including concentration of population in urban areas, increased produc tion of manufactured products, greater international trade in goods, and increased de m a nd for natural resou r ces. Thes e changes have led to the em er gence of issues such as increased volum e s and vari eties of solid waste, qualitative diversificat ion of this solid waste, transbounda ry move m e nt of 3Rs-related goods, m a terials and products, and soar ing prices of resources. In m a ny developing countries, open dum p ing is the m o st common practice for waste disposal, which often leads to water contam ination, odour s, and other environm ental, health and hygiene problem s. There is a wide spect rum of cha llenges including heavy m e tal contam ination due to inadequate segregation, rising levels of hazardous substances in industrial w a ste, m i xing in of infectious wast e with m unicipal waste, and adverse health and environm ental im pacts due to im pr oper resource recovery practices f o r E-was t e. Ideally , while it is f a r preferable not to bring toxic/hazardous waste or waste containing valuable m a terials to landf ill sites, in pr actice this is n o t the c a se. Furtherm ore, the m e thane ga s generated from dum p si tes induces a signifi cant greenhouse ef fect. As m e ntioned above, m a ny count ries and local governm e nts are faced w ith a lack of an integrated solid waste m a nage m e nt strategy and are held back by other institutional cons tr aints, insuf f icient hum an resources, and budgetary constraints. Part of the problem is that solid waste m a nagem e nt is seldom given a high priority in national policy . There is a p r essing need for sustainable dev e lop m ent in Asia to realize more ef ficient use of resources and m a terials and to reduce the environm ental im pact of consum ption and production activities. Prom otion of the 3Rs, through the integration of policies on waste m a nage m e nt and resource m a nagement, is one of the keys to realize sustainable production and consumption in Asia. The Asia 3R Confer ence A series of expert m eetings and policy dial ogues on the 3Rs identified “m unicipal or ganic waste m a nagem e nt”, “m edical waste m a nagem e nt” and “E-waste m a nagem e nt” as prio rity issues in As ia. W h ile, in gene ral, the 3Rs i nherently prom otes sustai nable use of resources in the entire product lifecycle from production, distribution and consump tion to disposal, in Asia, priorities should focus on the environm entally sound m a nage ment of these ur gent waste-related challenges by u tilizing the 3R conc ept. Exam ples of challenges for “ m unicipal or gani c waste m a nagem e nt” include hygienic issues, water contam ination by or ganic pollutants, and air pollution from spont aneous com bustion in open dum p ing site. T o cope with these cha lle nges, the 3Rs will provide an eco nom i cally pragm a tic solution. “Medical waste” is a mixture of several dif f eren t types of waste including infectious waste, 4
1. Issues Paper Asia 3R Confer ence 30 Oct o ber t o 1 Novemb er , 2006 Mita Confer ence Hall, T o kyo, Japan 19 October , 2006 Ministry of the Envir o nment, Japan Institute of Global Envir o nmental S t rategies, Japan
9. V i et Nam , a nd Japan. The Asian Network for P r even tion o f Illegal T r an sboundary Movement o f Hazar dous W a stes Based on the proposal from Japanese governm e nt, of ficials from Asian countries in char ge of the Basel Convention have for m ed a network to exchange inform ation, hold workshops, operate a website that contains inform ation on pertinent legislation in mem b er countries, and for m ulate guidelines to help ensure lawful transboundary m o vem e nt. 3R Knowledge Hub The Asian Development Bank (ADB), the United Nations Environm ent Programm e / Regional Of fice for Asia and the Pacific(UNEP/ ROAP) and the Asian In stitu te of T echnology (AIT) have agreed to work together to cr eate a reservoir of know ledge and technologies rela ted to th e 3Rs and dissem i nate th is inf o rm ation in Asia. Sub-r e gional 3R Expert Meetings ADB, UNEP , and IGES are or ganizing workshops which bring together international experts on specific challenges in 3Rs prom oti on in Asia. As an initial step, the South Asia 3Rs Expert Meeting was held in Kathm a ndu, Nepal, from 30 August to 1 September , 2006. Approxim a tely 40 experts on the 3Rs from resear ch ins t itu t es, interna t ional or gan i zation s , governm e nts and NGOs reviewed the present situations and challenges of South Asian countries in the fields of “m unic i pal waste,” “industrial waste,” “m edical waste” and “E-waste,” and discussed issues on the prom oti on of the 3Rs in South A s ia in thr ee working groups;“society , ” “finance a nd economy ,” and “technology”. Asia-Pacific Solid W a ste M anagement Expert Meetings Solid waste m a nage m e nt and 3Rs researchers t ogether with experts from Japan, China, Republic of Korea, Thailand and other Asian a nd Pacific countries are working together to share basic knowledge in waste m a nagem e nt and to prom ote joint resear ch. Creation of an international network of solid waste m a nage m e nt and 3Rs experts is bein g considered as well. The first such m eeting was held in T okyo in October 2005. The second m eeting is scheduled for , 23 - 24 Nove m b er 2006 in the city of Kitakyushu, Japan. In addition to these projects and programm es, JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) im plem ented a survey in Ma lay s ia on na ti onal strategy for waste m i ni m i zation by incorporating the 3Rs concept. Also, in Ha noi, V i et Na m , a 3R project on separation and recovery of municipal or ganic waste has been started by JICA. 6
13. Therefore, collaboration am ong the various actors such as central and local governm e nts, enterp ris e s and local co mmunities c a n enhance the prom otion of various 3R activities with regards biodegradable waste and, as a result, ca n contribute to the saving of resources and governm e ntal expenditure on collection and transpor tation in m o st of the countries as well as the protection of the environm ent. Key points for the 3Rs in Municip a l Organic W a ste Man agement (1) Reduction of Municipal Or ganic W a ste Generation For 3Rs promotion, reduction of or ganic wa ste generation should be a priority . For exam ple, in response to lifestyle ch ange ar ising from urbanization, it is necessary to prom ote the reduction of food waste generati on from households, restaurants and food retailers, and foster ef forts by the food i ndus try to reconsider the procurem ent of ingredients, packaging, and producti on processes to reduce waste. (2) Segregation Municipal waste is, by its very nature, a m i xt ure of a lar g e variety of m a terials. The sam e applies to household waste. Therefor e waste segregation is a prerequisite to recycling. In developing countries , w a ste is generally segregated at three levels, 1) at a household and comm unity level, 2) in the pr ocess of collection and transportation by local governm e nts, and 3) at final disposal sites by waste pickers. However , even in cases where the citizens and the m unicipal governm e nt are environm entally conscious and a high degree of segregati on is carried ou t at source, the absence of recycling industries, among other factors, often precludes ef fective recycling and the sorted waste ends up being m i xed with unsorte d waste in open dum p ing sites. (3) Com postin g The com pos ting of biodegradable w a ste is a hi g h ly ef fective approach to alleviate th e pressure on the waste m a nage m e nt budget of the m unicipal governm e nt and also to im prove the hygienic co nditions and bring about revenue and em ploym e nt opportun i ties for the com m unity . In order to achieve these kinds of benefits from composting, it is a prerequ i site to im plem ent m u ltitie red seg r egation an d sorting of generated biodegradable waste, taking in to account the points m e nti oned in (2) above.. The key to suc cess lies in the m a rketing of n o t only th e sorted m e tals and p l as tics, but also the com post. However, the replication of local initiatives in other areas an d the realization of econom i e s of scale for ef ficient and econom i c production are m a jor challenges. Ef fective econom i c, and policy schem e s are needed to m eet these challenges. In addition, it is necessary to create an overall plan incorpo r ating both infrastructu re and m a nage m e nt aspects. T h is would include better understanding of the need for product quality driven by the consum er ( m ainly fa rm houses) as w e ll as the achievem ent of product quality and policies that improve citi zen' s perception of benefits and address fears relating to agricultural products m a de thr ough waste com posting. This area is eligible for consideration as a CDM proj ect, as prom otion of composting yields a substantial reduction in m e thane e m issions.. 10
10. 3. Partnership and International Cooperation for the 3Rs The Asia 3 R Conference has th e aim of sti m ulating concrete actions by enhancing the common understand ing of the signif i cance of prom oting the 3Rs in Asia. The conf erence will f i rst intro d u ce on-go ing 3R-rela ted programmes and projects in Asia. Then, issues of “partn ersh ip and international cooperation for th e prom otion of the 3Rs” will be discussed as a cross-cutting them e in a working group session. “Partne r ship and inte rn ationa l coo p eration for the prom otion of the 3Rs” in cludes th e following two m a jor them es: (i) partnership am ong stakeholders, and (ii) international cooperation. Partnership and cooperation am ong central and local governm ents, citizens, NGOs, business enterprises, and other stakeholders is an indi spensable factor in the promotion of t h e 3Rs because it in volves the entire product lifecycle from production, distribu tion and consum ption to disposal. Cooperation am ong stakeholde rs contributes greatly to the improved sustainability of solid waste m a nagem e nt system s and recycling sy stem s. For exam ple, in the provin c e of Nonthaburi, Thailan d, the m uni cipal govern m e nt and the local communities cooperate with each other very closely . In Banglade sh an N GO by the nam e of W a ste Concern is pla y ing a m a jor role in city waste m a nage m e nt, linking the local co mmunity , public sector and business. In Surabaya, Indonesia, th e local community takes the lead in was t e m a nage m e nt . Singapore prom otes pub lic-private partnerships. Also, the inform al sector plays a m a jor role in re cycling in se veral coun tr ies. Theref ore, it is a challenge how to evaluate the role of inf o rm al recyc ling a nd if and ho w to collabo r ate with these activities. Also, in som e countries polic y response is needed to address the activities of waste pickers at interim waste collec tion points and fina l d i sposal sites. Equally indispensable for the prom otion of the 3Rs is an in terna tiona l perspec tive, because the high degree of econom i c interdependence in the Asian region is expected to lead to greater im ports and exports of materials and products. In order to construct an intern ational m a terial-cycle society th rough the 3Rs, it is considered necessary to (i) build a sound m a terial-cycle society in each c ountry and (ii) establish and reinf o rce th e f r am ework to prev e n t illega l tr ade of wastes, and th en ( i ii) f a cilita te export/im port of 3R-related goods, m a terials an d products. (see Fig. 3-1). The discussion on international cooperation should be based on this idea. T o bring about a sound m a terial-cycle society in each co untry , a series of internation a l cooperation techniques have been already im pl em ented in the for m of training of hum a n resources, technical co operation, and the provisi on of necessary equip m ent. For exam ple, providing key equipm ent to countries in ur ge nt need of environmentally sound waste m a nage m e nt can contribute to establishing a system for a sound m a terial-cycle society . Donating secondhand equipm ent or selling it at low cost, in add ition to donating new equipm ent, can be considered as a transbounda ry reuse activity . In this case, one should ensure that used equipm ent is suf f icient ly durable. Also, cooperation to exchange know-how on providing collec tion and m a intenance sy stem s is desirable. Private ente rpris e s have started to estab lish in ternational n e tworks of rem a nufacturing for 7
3. Abbr eviations 3Rs Reduce, Reuse and Recycle ADB Asian Development Bank AIT Asian Institute of T ech nology CDM Clean Development Mechanism EPR Extended Pr oducer Responsibility EU Eur o pean Union IGES Institu t e of Global Envir o nmental S t rategies JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency NGOs Non-governmental Organi z a tions PPP Polluter Pays Principle UNCRD United Nations Centr e for Regional Development UNEP United Nations Envir o nment Pr ogramme WEEE W a ste Electrical and Electr o nic Eq uipment WT O W o rld T r ade Organiz ation
5. The Summit adopted the “Science and T echnol ogy for Sustainable Developm ent: ' 3 R' Action Plan and Progress on Im plem entation” as a part of the G8 Action Plan. The 3R Initiative h a s th e objec tive of prom oti ng 3R activities on a global scale. F o llowing the agreem ent at the G8 Sea Island Summ it, th e Ministerial Conference on the 3R I n itiativ e held in T o kyo in April 2005 for m ally launched the 3R Initiative. The 3Rs Action Plan set forth the following five points to be pursued through th e 3R In itiativ e: 1) T o prom ote the 3Rs thro ugh visions and strategies; 2) T o reduce barriers to the international flow of goods an d m a terials in relation to recycling and rem a nufac turing; 3) T o encourage cooperation am ong the various stakeholders; 4) T o prom ote science and technology f o r the 3Rs; and 5) T o prom ote cooperation between the develope d and developing countries in this field. The outco m e of the Minis t er ial Conf erence was pre s e n ted a t the G8 Summit h e ld at Gleneagles in the United Kingdom in July 2005. “The Gleneagles Plan of Action for Clim ate Cha nge, Clean Ener gy and Sustainable Deve lopm ent” sta t ed tha t the 3R Initiative is “an im portant step towards encouraging m o re e fficient use of resources and m a terials, which increases econom i c competitiveness whilst decreasing env i ro nm ental im pacts”. As a f o llow- up to th e M i niste r ia l Co nf erence on th e 3R In itia tive, a Seni o r Of ficials Meeting on the 3R Initiative was held in T okyo, in Ma rch 2006. In the pursuit of international prom otion of the 3Rs, delegates from countries and international or ganizations exchanged experiences and opinions on adva nced activ ities, identified pos sible directions of their programm e s and projects, and discussed issues pertaining to transboundary m ove m e nts of 3Rs-related goods, m a terials and products. In July 2008 at the G8 S t . Petersbur g Summ it, the G8 m e mbers agreed to the S t . Petersbur g Plan of Action which in cludes “W e will set tar g et s as appro p riate taking account of resource productivity” to further ef forts related to the 3R Initiative. The 3R Initiative will be further promoted to give im petus to the G8 Summit in Germ any in 2007, and in Japan in 2008. The Asia 3R Conference is held in this con t e x t with the objective of prom oting concrete 3R-related actions by sharing common understanding on the significance of the 3Rs in Asia. 2
19. appropriate transpo r ta tio n a nd treatm e nt of E- waste. Many m unicipalities lack the appropriate technology and capacity for sound ma nagem e nt, because it is quite dif f erent in for m and nature from conventional house hold waste (m unicipal or ganic waste, waste plastics, etc. ). (4) T r ansboundary m ove m e nts Although this is not only lim ited to the E-waste category , what could be considered as waste in one country can becom e a viable s econd-hand products in another country , then recyclable resources in a third, and agai n b ecom e waste in a nother country , all depending on the econom i c, social and tech nological situations of the country in question. This characteristic is particularly apparent in Asia, which has a very lar g e country-to-country variance in term s of econom i c developm ent. In m a ny Asian countries, im port and export of E-waste for the purpose of recycling is prohibited or regulated to follo w the procedures prescribed in the “Basel Convention on the Contro l of Transboundary Movem e nts of Hazardous W a stes and T h eir Dispo s al”. However, in countries prohibitin g or restricting im port of E-wa ste, it is reported that som e ti m e s the illegal import and export is done under th e disguise of second hand goods and recycled im properly , causing health dam a ges and environm e n tal pollution in the recipient countries. In addition, despite transboundary m ovem e nt and its tran sboundary im pa ct, the lack of an intern ational m echanism to m a nage E-wa ste and the substances contained therein m a kes it difficult to collect the data and statistics that are necessary for the for m ulation of national policy m easures. Key points for the 3Rs of E-w a ste (1) Prom otion of international m a na gem e nt practices Since E-waste issues are clo s el y a ssocia t ed w ith th e in ter n ationa l f l o w of m a terials, international collaboration on the Asian re gional level is indispensable for its m a nage m e nt . Therefore, at the suggestion of the Secretariat of the Basel Convention, the “Environm entally S ound Managem e nt of E- waste in the Asia-Pacific region” project has been in place to pro m ote enviro nm entally sound m a nagem e nt of wa ste electrical and electronic equipm ent (WEEE) since 2005. The Project will m a ke detailed inventories of E-waste in countries, and im ple m ent pilo t projects for segregation, collection, repair, and rem a nufacturing and recycling of E-wast e. Through activities that reflect and synthesize outcom es of the project (such as pr eparing a g u ideline f o r nation a l po lic y m a king), expected results are im proved bu ild capacity an d stre ngthen public-private partnerships to deal with E-waste issues in countries party to the Basel Convention. However, addition a l international c o llabo ration in the Asian region is re quired to ad dress the E-waste problem , including the strengthen ing of controls on exports and im ports, preparation of statistical data for inform a tion gathering on the volum es of these exports and im ports, and the reduction in and disclosu re of inform ation on toxic substances in 16
15. 4-2 Medical W a ste Manag e ment Backgr ound W a ste generated at m e dical institutions by m e di cal practices includes infectious w a ste with m i crobiological hazard (biohazard) risks. Beca use m e dical waste contains, or is feared to contain, infectious pathogens, it m u st be m a na ged with the utm o st caution to protect hum a n health and environm ent. Of specific concer n are item s such as bl ood-stained cotton and gauze, bandages, syringes, scissors, m e dical knives, am poules, gloves, and blood sam p ling devices. In general, of all waste generated by health care providers, infectio us waste consists around 15-20% (W HO 1999). W h en infectious waste is m i xed with others, the m i x should be treated as hazardous and it is dif f icult to achie ve the 3Rs due to high processing/m a nagem e nt costs. In addition, m e dical waste d i sposal m i xed with oth e r waste leads to a situ atio n where people such as sanitation workers and waste- pickers can easily come into con t act with hazardous and infectiou s m e dical waste. As a result, it is feared that these p e ople are exposed to a high risk of being inf ected with hepatitis or HIV , am ong others. Moreover , if infectious w a stes such as used syringes are re used without disinfection treatm e nt and recycled, it cau ses add ition a l hea l th risks to th ose who are trea ted by th ese m e dical gears. . Key points for Medica l W a ste Management Challenges in the m a na gem e nt of m e dical wa ste can be summ arized in the follo wing two points: (1) how infectious waste and non-in fectious w a ste ought to be appropriately segregated and dischar g ed by health care p r o v iders to reduce waste that m u st be handled carefully as infectious; and (2) how infectious waste ought to be appropriately m a naged. (1) Appropriate segregation and dischar g e In m a ny As ian countries, infectious waste is not sorted at the stage of generation in m e dical institutions, and is collected, transp orted and disposed of wi th other various waste. On the other hand, som e countries and leading m e dical institutions are m a king ef forts to build system s to enforce appropr iate segregation of m e dical waste thorough contro l of the waste seg r egation at th e m e dical in stitu tion s . (2) Appropriate treatm ent of m e dical wastes There are several treatm ent techn o logies fo r m e dical wastes such as incineration, sterilization and disinfection, pa rticularly im portant for infectious m e dical wastes. For the purpose of better m a nage m e nt of m e dical waste as well as p r ote c tion of san ita ry workers, it is im portant to ensure the se paration of these medical waste throughout the process of collection, transport and tr eatm e nt. The following table shows the advantages and disadvantages of treatm ent technologies. 12
18. 4-3 E-w a ste Management Backgr ound E-waste is d e fined as waste from electron ic an d electric products and goods, typically include TVs, refrigerators, air condition e rs, washi ng machines, PC s, m obile phones. Components such as printed circuit boards inside these hom e appliances are also includ ed as E-waste. (1) Increased generation of E-waste Electric and electronic in dustrie s continue to grow in m a ny countries of the world, and a huge quantity of new pr oducts is supplied to m a rkets every day . In many cases, this prosperity has led to the dischar g e of m a ny e l ectric/electronic products before their intrinsic pro duct life is reached. Su ch pr oducts dischar g ed prem aturely are reused as second-hand m e rchandise, recycled m e tal a nd plastics for resource recovery , or disposed of as a waste. It should be noted here that overall econom ic developm ent is m o st likely to result in a decrease in the reused quantity , and an incr ease in E-waste. Societies in an earlie r phase of econom ic developm ent have a lar g e dem a nd for second-hand electric/electronic p r odu cts, leaving rela tiv ely little room f o r recycling and waste disposal. When an econom y grows and pe ople enjoy greater disposable income, however , they de m a nd newer , higher quality and cleaner products, pushing the demand down for second-hand products an d sending lar g er quantities of used products to be recycled or disposed of. This trend is par ticu l ar ly notice a ble in Asia, which is achieving rem a rkably high rates of econom ic growth. Asia should be making adequate preparation s to deal with the lar g e-s c al e generation of E-waste, which will undoubted ly becom e a reality in th e n ear future. (2) Influences o f hazardous substances E-waste m o stly con t ain s cadm i um , lead and many other h eavy m e tals and chem i cals that, if disc har g ed with out any trea tm ent, could cause adverse ef fects on hum a n he alth and the living environm ent. Si mple recyc ling or disposal of such E-waste without appropriate additional m easures poses thr eats of adverse im pacts on the health of workers and local residents as well as on the environm ent of t h e neighborhood. T o address the issu e of s u ch hazardo u s subs tances, the EU has launched m easures at the level of product m a nufacturing by way of the RoHS Directive. In m o st Asian countries, however , no special actions have been initiated even though a few count ries are spearheading ef forts. (3) Dif f iculty of appropriate m a nage m e nt Under the present m a rket conditions of high metal prices and low-cost labour , E-w a ste is recycled by the private-sector through the working of market forces. However , if this situation changes and resources are available at low cost, schem e s for sound m a nage m e nt of E-waste m u st be structure d. T h is m a y cause a serious challenge for 15
21. recycling • Regional-scale ef forts aim i ng to red u ce th e use of hazardou s substances in p r oduct m a nufacture, as well as infor m ation disclosure • T r ansboundary utilization of private en terprises with advanced recycling technologies (2) Im prove m e nt of dom e stic m a nage m e nt schem e s • Introduction of a legal system for t h e prom otion of recycling and environm entally sound m a na gem e nt of E-waste • Intra-governm e ntal collaboration • Facilitate the development and dif f usi on of a ppropriate treatm e nt, e.g. through developm ent of guidelines • Consideratio n of cost sharing m echanism for recycling and environm entally sound m a nage m e nt (PPP , tax system , deposit, paym ents, EPR, etc.) • Design and developm ent of recycling-friendly products • Inform ation and knowledge sharing through collaboration with industries and NGOs 18
20. the product traded in the region. Furtherm ore, it is im portan t to in v e stig ate the potential o f the utilizing the adva nced technologies and system s used by som e na tions and private firm s to realize a transboundary environm entally sound recycling system . (2) Dom e stic prom otion of the 3Rs of electronic and electric products Quite often, electronic and elec tric products are still usable after being disposed of. Therefore, ef forts to “R educe” thro ugh longer use as well as prom otio n of “Reuse” to m i ni m i ze E-waste gen e ration are needed. Also, a life cycle approach to the environm ental im pact of products is necessary for policy for m ation to encourag e industry to design and develop recycling-friendly products. Then, reuse of product parts and m a terials can be i m proved by es ta blishing an d operating E-waste specif ic treatm ent fa cilities. In principle, these activ ities for E-waste should be first im plem e n ted dom e stica lly . (3) Environm entally sound m a nagem e nt of residues from the 3R activities Because E-waste is qu ite d i f f erent in form and nature from conventional hou sehold waste and it is often dif f icult to be collect ed and treated in an environm entally sound m a nner . T e c hnologies for the tr eatment of residues from r ecycling and laws and policies to prom ote recycling of hom e appliances a nd electronic products are valuable tools to establish a system for the environm entally sound m a nage m e nt of E- waste. For this purpose it is necessary to m a ke a n invent ory of E-waste to understand what kind of electronic products are produced, sold, im ported, traded and disposed of dom e stically . The m a rket m echanism alone is not enough to secure environm entally sound m a nage m e nt of E-waste. Therefore, th e in stitu tion a lization of recycling through collabo ratio n of public and priv ate sectors is necess a ry . In this case, careful consideration of policy options such as Po lluter Pays Principle (PPP), tax m echanism s , deposits, direct char ging m echanis ms, and EP R is necessary . Also, inform ation sharing should be encouraged to raise awarene ss among stakeholders of the health and environm ental im pacts of i m proper treatm e nt of E-waste. Suggested topics for discussion Challenges facing the prevention of environm ental human health dam a ge associated with E-waste and securing the environm entally sound flow of m a terials in clude the following: (1) Prom otion of interna tion a l ef f o rts • S t ructuring of cooperative schem e s am ong Asian countries • Establishm e n t and im provem e nt of e xport/im port controls • Com p ilation of statistics to keep track of export/import quantities (data processing by HS code, etc.) • Assistance to prom ote wider use of technologies for appropriate treatm ent and 17
11. their used, exported products collected from va rious countries through their international supply chains. Also, in Asia som e recycling businesses have state-of-the-art advanced technologies for the recovery a nd rem e diation of hard-to-m a nage m a terials. Therefore, one of the m a jor issues f o r the inte rnational p r om ot ion of the 3Rs m u st be how to extend the potential contribution of private enterprises. The developm ent of a list of environm ental goo ds and services under the Doha Mandate of the W o rld T r ade Or ganization (WT O ) is in progress. A l so, the W T O Non-T a rif f Barrier Initiative to Elim inate Barrier s to T r ade in Rem a nufactured a nd Refurbished Products is under discuss i on. This kind of initiatives contributes to the in ternational p r om otion of the 3Rs. On the other hand, illegal trade of waste disguised as recyclable m a terials or rem a nufactured goods can be a concern. Also, there is the issue that the burden associated with final disposal of goods could in crease in importing countries. Addr es s tr an s b ou nd ar y movement issue s accor d ing to the charac teri s t ics of e a ch r e sour ce (e. g ., h a z a rd, value , e t c.) Pr er equisite : Each c o untr y to build a s o u nd materi al- c y cl e society of its own • Pr om ote pr ogrammes , se tti ng a m o del for other countries • Assist de velop i ng c o un tries i n their effor t s Impr ove the domestic t r eatm ent capacit y of de ve loping countr i e s Dom e stic cycle International cy cle to complement dome stic cyc l e Dom e stic cycle Reduce overall e n vir o nm ental i m pa ct in East Asia inclu d ing solid w a ste ma n a g e me n t Industriali z e d countries to use thei r high-level te chnol ogies to r e aliz e efficie n t us e of materials that ar e n o t r ecyclable by oth e r countries Developing count ries to achieve labour -intensive k i nds of r ecycling at low econom i c cost Int’l cycle Border Effecti v e border contr o l S t r e ngthen mea s ur es against inappr opriate tran s b oun d a ry movemen t of r e cycl ed r e s o u r ce s Explor e wa y s to facilitate the international f l o w of 3R-r elated goo ds, materia l s an d pr oducts for the p u r p o s e of th e mor e effic i en t u s e of r e s o u r ces So urce: t h e C e nt ral En vi r onm ent C o u n ci l Fig.3-1: V i sion for an International S ound Material-Cycle Society 8
14. (4) Ener gy recovery Ener gy reco very can be another ef fective so lu tio n f o r the implem entatio n of the 3Rs f o r biodegradable waste. The m a in route usua lly considered f o r en er gy generation from biodegradable waste is m e th ane fer m entation. This technology is eligible for consideratio n as a CDM project as it con t ributes to the reduction of fossil fuel consum ption. In addition, concerns on bio-fuel production are rapidl y growing along with the steep rise in ener gy and reso urce p r ices. Meanwhil e, extensive deforestation of rain forest for the bio-fuel production leads to serious environm ental problem s. Therefore, it is suggested that biodegradable wastes from household and agricultura l activitie s should be utilized in the bio-fuel pr oduction as altern ative resources. Suggested topics for discussion (1) Challenges for prom otion of 3Rs and biodegradable waste segregation • Characteris tics of biodeg r adable waste in each As ian coun try. Barrie r s to redu ctio n and recycling of m uni cipal or ganic waste; experiences and inform at ion useful for overcom ing such barriers • Challenges in segregation, collection, and transportation for m itigating increas ing waste m a nagem e nt cost • Challenges on financial and technical solutions • Challenges and opportunities for stakeholde r cooperation in the 3Rs for m unicipal or ganic waste and succes s ful case (2) Challenges related to com posting • Ef fectiveness for prom otion of composti ng. E c onom ic/policy schem e s to prom ote com posting, especially for replication an d extension of good practices to other communitie s (3) Challenges on ener gy recovery • Exam ple cases of bio-ener gy recov e ry from municipal or ganic wast e, both successful and otherwise • Syner gy with clim ate change m easures; use of municipal or ganic waste as a resource • Cooperation am ong the related governm e ntal agencies 11
4. 1. Pr ogr ess in the 3R Initiative The Conce p t of the 3R s In June 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Developm ent (the “Earth Summ it”) was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Following the conf erence, a n u m b er of international agreem ents have been reach ed in order to progres s towards sustainabl e developm ent. For the shift to a socio-econom ic system based on “sustainable consum pt ion and production”, the creation of a sound m a terial -cycle society is of particul ar im por tance. This would restrain wanton consumption of natural resources, raise re source productivity and lower environm ental im pact. The keys to building su ch a society lie in th e p r om otion of the 3Rs (Reduction of solid waste generation, Reuse of resources and products , and Recycling) and the environm entally sound m a nage m e nt of was t e, which is a prerequisite to the promotion of the 3Rs (see Figure 1-1). Fig. 1-1: Concept of the 3Rs in a Sound Material-Cycle Society Inpu t of natur a l r e sour ces S t ep 1: Reduc e: Reduce ge ner a ti on of wa s t e a n d by -p r o du ct s Pr od uction (M an ufact uri n g, d i str i bu tio n, et c.) S t ep 3( a) : Recycling: Recycle i t ems that c a nnot be re u s e d St e p 2 : R e u s e : U s e it em s r e pe a t ed ly Consum ption, use St e p 3 ( b ) : Thermal Recycling: Recover e n er gy fr om items that cannot be r e c y cled but fr om which energy c a n be r ecove r e d Dispo s al T r eatment (Rec ycling, incinerati on, etc . ) S t ep 4: Pr oper disposal: Pr operl y di sp ose of i t ems th at ar e n o t r e c y c Final disp os al l abl e Pr ogr ess in the 3R Initiative (see Fig.1-2) At the G8 Summ it held in June 2004 at Sea Island, Geor gia, in the United S t ates, Mr . Junichiro Koizum i, then Prim e Mi nister of Ja pan, proposed the launch of the 3R Initiative. 1
2. 19 October , 2006 Contents Abbr eviations 1. Pr ogr ess in the 3R Initiative 1 The Concept of the 3Rs Progress in the 3R Initiative 2. Pr omotion of the 3Rs in Asia 4 Im portance of the 3Rs in Asia The Asia 3R Conference On-going Projects and P r ogramm e s related to the 3Rs in Asia 3. Partnership and International Coo p eration fo r the 3Rs 7 4. Specific Challenges facing the Pr o m otio n of the 3Rs and Envir o nmentally Sound Management of W a ste in Asia 9 4-1 Municipal Organic W a ste Man agement 9 Background Key points for the 3Rs in Munici pal Or ganic W a ste Managem e nt Suggested topics for discussion 4-2 Medica l W a ste Man agement 12 Background Key points for Medical W a ste Managem e nt Suggested topics for discussion 4-3 E-w a ste Management 15 Background Key points for the 3Rs of E-waste Suggested topics for discussion Bibliography 19
23. V i svanathan, C. and T . Norbu (2006) “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: T he 3Rs in South Asia” presented at 3R South Asia Expert W o rkshop, Kathmandu, Nep a l, Aug u st 30th to September 1st, 2006 V i svanathan, C. and U. Glawe (2006) “Domestic Solid W a ste Management in South Asian Countries – A Comp arative Analysis” pre s ent ed at 3R South Asia Expert W o rkshop, Kathmandu, Nep a l, August 30th to September 1st, 2006 V i svanathan, C. and R. Adhikari (2 006) “Healthcare W a st e Management in South Asia” presented at 3R South Asia Expert W o rkshop, Kathmandu, Nep a l, Aug u st 30th to September 1st, 2006 W o rld Bank (2003), Th ailand Envir o n m ent Mo nitor 2003 – Solid and Hazardous W a ste , downloadable from W o rld Bank website at http:// www .worldb ank.or .th/ W o rld Bank (2004), Indonesia Enviro n m ent monitor 2003 - Sp ecial focus : reducing pollution, V o l. 1 of 1 , downloadable from W o rld Bank website at http://www- wds.worldbank.org/ W o rld Bank (2004), Philippine Enviro n m ent Monit o r 2004: Assessing Prog ress , downloadable from W o rld Bank websit e at http://www .worldba nk.org.ph W o rld Bank (2004), V i etna m Environ m ent Moni tor 2004: Solid W a ste , downloadable from W o rld Bank website at http://www-wds.worldbank.org/ W o rld Ban k (2005), “W aste Management in China: I s sues and Recommen dations”, downloadable from W o rld Bank website at http:// worldbank.org/ Zurbrugg, C. (2002), “Urban Solid W a ste Management in Low-Income Countries of Asia How to Cope wit h the Garb age Crisis” Presented f o r: Scientif ic Committe e on Proble m s of the Environmen t (SCOPE) Urban Solid W a ste Ma nagement Review Session, Durban, South Africa, November 2002 We b s i t e Basel Convention W ebsite (Access date, October 2006): http://www .basel.int/ The 3R Initiative Of ficial W ebsite of Ministry of t he Environ m ent, Jap a n (Access dat e, October 2006) http: //www .en v .g o.jp/recycle/ 3 r/en/index.html The 3R Initiative W ebsit e at IGES (Access date , October 2006) http://www .iges.or . jp/en/ news/topic/0 609_3r .html The South Asia 3R Expert W o rkshop W ebsite (A ccess d a te, October 2006) http://www .iges.or . jp/en/ ltp/activity08.html Ministry of Economy , T r a de and Indu stry , 3R Policy Survey Report s W ebsite (Access date, October 2006)(Jap anese): http://www . m eti.go.jp/policy/recycle / main/dat a/research/ind ex.html UNCRD, SPC/3R W ebsite (Access d a te, October 2006): http: //www .uncrd.or . jp/env/spc/ UNEP-DTIE, Cleaner Production S t atus Report s , Regional Sust ainable Consump t ion and Production Report s W ebsite (Acce ss date, Octo ber 2006): 20
22. Bibliography Books, Articles and Reports ADB, IGES and UNEP (2006), Promoting Reduce, Reuse and Recycle in South Asia; Synthesis R eport of 3R South Asia Expert W o rkshop Kathmandu, Nep a l 30 August – 1 September , 2006 Glawe, U., V i svanathan C., Alamgir , M. (2005): Solid W a ste Managemen t in Least D e veloped Asian Countries – A Comp arative Analysis”, Int e rnational Conference o n Integrated Solid W a ste Management in Southeast Asian Cities, 5- 7 July , Siem Reap, Cambodia Health Care Without Harm (2001):No n -Incineratio n Medical W a ste T r eatment T e chno logies. available online [http://www . noharm.org/library/docs/ NonIncineration_Medical_W a ste_T reatment_T echn.pdf] as of August 2006 IGES (2005 ), “Networking International Recycl ing Zones in Asia – towards improvement of resource ef ficiency and solutions for envir onmen t a l problems in developing countries”, IGES Policy Brief #1, IGES, Hayama IGES (2006 ), 3Rs in A s ia , APFED Policy Dialogue W o rking Paper Series No.2, IGES, Haya ma JICA (2005), Supporting Cap a city D e velopm ent in Solid W a ste Management in Developing Countries -T owards Im proving the S o lid W a ste Manage m e n t Cap a city o f an Entire Society- , JICA, T o ky o Kojima, M. (2005) (ed.), Internation a l T r ade of Recyclable Resources i n Asia , IDE-JETRO, Chiba. Ministry of Economy , T r a de and Indu stry Jap an, W o rking Group on Enhancing Inter national Recycling, W a ste Prevention and Recycling Sub-committe e, Industrial S t ructure Council (2004), “T oward a Sust ainable Asia B a sed on the 3Rs”, Ministry of Economy , T r ade and Industry Jap an, T o kyo. Ministry of the Environment Jap an (2005), Background p a per -Ministerial Conference on the 3R Initiative , Ministry of the Environment Jap an, T o kyo Ministry of the Environ m ent Jap an (2005), Issues Paper -Ministerial Conference on the 3R Initiative , Ministry of the Environmen t Jap an, T o kyo Ministry of t he Environment Jap an (2006), Issues Paper - S enior Of ficials Meeting on the 3R Initiative , Ministry of the Environmen t Jap an, T o kyo Ministry of the Environ m ent, Jap a n (2006), “Heisei 17 Nendo Haikibut su no Kouiki Idou T a isaku Ke ntou Chosa oyobi Haikibut su nado J unkan Riyouryou Jitt ai Chosa Hou k okusho (2005 annual report of survey on response for wider-area move ment of waste and current situation of quantity in circular use of waste and other materials)” UNEP (200 1), S t ate of the environment 2001 , htt p ://www .eap ap.unep.org/report s /soe/ UNEP-I E TC (2004), “S t a te of W a ste Managemen t in South East Asia”, U N EP-IET C , Osaka 19
6. 2004 June : G8 Se a Island Sum mit (U. S .) Prim e Min i ster Ko izu m i p r opo ses th e 3 R Ini tiative. G8 m e m b ers agree on a 3Rs Actio n Plan. 3R Initi at ive launch e d 2005 April: Ministeria l Co nfer ence o n the 3 R Initia ti v e (T oky o , J a pan) Min i sters from 2 0 co un t r ies an d represen tativ es o f in tern ation a l or ga ni zat i ons a g ree o n t h e i n t e rnat i o nal pr o m oti on of t h e 3 R s. 3R Initiative activit i es pr omoted July: G8 Gleneagles Sum mit (U.K.) Pri m e M i ni st er K o i z um i prese n t s out c o m e s of t h e M i ni st eri a l C o n f ere n ce. N o v e m b er : W o r k sho p on E-waste ( T ok yo) M eet i ng of t h e Asi a n Net w o r k f o r t h e P r e v en t i on of Il l e gal T r ans b ou n d ary M ovem e nt (T o k y o ) 2006 Mar c h: Seni o r Of ficials Me eting o n t h e 3 R Ini t iati ve (T ok yo , Ja pa n) Senior of ficials from 20 count ries a n d rep r esen tativ es of in tern ation a l or ga ni zat i ons t a ke pa rt i n di scussi o n s on ( i ) 3R s pr om ot i o n wi t h i n eac h cou n t r y , a n d (i i ) i n t e r n at i onal pr om ot i on of t h e 3R s (i nt e r nat i onal fl o w of goods a n d m a terials). July: G8 S t . P e tersbur g Su mmit (Rus sia) Me m b ers agre e to “set tar g ets as ap propriate, t aking acco unt of re source p r od u c tiv ity” to furth e r ef fo rt s with i n th e 3 R In itiativ e. October: Asia 3R Confer e n ce (T okyo, Japan) Review of pr ogr ess of 3R Initiative 2007 G8 Summit (Germany ) 2008 G8 Summi t ( J ap an) Fig.1-2: Evolution of the 3R Initiative 3
17. Suggested topics for discussion (1) Challenges f aced in p r o m oting the ef forts of m e dical institu tions • Guidelines for the classification of m e dical waste into infecti ous or non-infectious waste • Dissem i nation and educational activ ities f o r m e dical institu tions • Clarification of a judgm e nt m e thod of in fectiousness / non-infectiousness by a m e dical institution, and its security m e thod • Thorough responsibilities for treatm e n t by m e dical institutions • Econom ic incentives to support sm all- a nd m e dium -sized m e dical institutions (2) Appropriate treatm ent technologies • T r eatm e nt technologies of m e dical wast e applicable in developing countries • Establishm ent of standards and policies n eces sary for the operation of appropriate trea tm ent f a cilities (3) Challenges f o r constructing appropriate m a nage ment system s • Form ulation of strategies, instituti ons and guidelines at a national level • Institutional fra m ework for prom oting appr opriate m a nagem e nt (treatm e nt manager , biohazard mark, and traceability , etc.) • Coordination between the waste m a nagem e nt departm e nt and the health departm e nt • A w areness raising and educationa l activities by NGOs and c o mm unities • A voiding the rem i x • Establishm e n t of communal waste m a nage m e nt am ong lar g e hospita ls, sm all clinic s and m unicipalities 14
12. 4. Specific Challenges for the Pr omotion of the 3Rs and the Envir o nmentally Sound Management of W a ste in Asia For the 3Rs and environm entally sound m a nage m e nt of was t e, the Asia 3R Conference deals with th ree specif i c iss u es: “Municipal Or ga n i c W a ste Managem e nt”, “Medical W a ste Managem e nt”, and “E-waste Managem e nt”. Th ese specific issues are c o mm on in t h e Asian region and require ur gent responses. 4-1 Municipal Organic W a ste Management Backgr ound About 40 to 70% of solid waste generated in As ian countries currently under m a nagem e nt is biodegradable waste and is characterized by high levels of m o isture content (see Fig.4-1). Major com ponents of municipal wastes are also biodegradable, as is or ganic waste f r om the food industry and ag ricultural waste. In m a jor cities in Asia’ s developing countries , so lid waste m a nagem e nt costs accoun ts for 20 to 50% of the city ’ s total expenditu res. 1 In Kathm a ndu, Ne pal, the costs of collection and transpo r t of solid waste s 2 a m ount to 93% of the total. 3 . It is also pointed out that only 50 to 70% of the population is served in cities where a solid waste m a nage m e nt service is believed to be provided. 4 Fig: 4-1 Composition of Solid W a ste in Majo r Cities in Asia W a ste Categories (averag e per centage of wet weight) City /Country Bio- degradable Pap er Plastic Glass Metal T e xtiles & Leath er Ine r t s (as h , earth ) & oth ers Indonesia 1 7 4 1 0 8 2 2 2 2 Dhaka 1 7 0 4 . 3 4 . 7 0 . 3 0 . 1 4 . 6 1 6 Kathmandu 1 6 8 . 1 8 . 8 1 1 . 4 1 . 6 0 . 9 3 . 9 5 . 3 Bangkok 1 5 3 9 1 9 3 1 7 8 Hanoi 1 5 0 . 1 4 . 2 5 . 5 2 . 5 3 7 . 7 Manila 1 4 9 1 9 1 7 6 9 India 1 4 2 6 4 2 2 4 4 0 Karachi 1 3 9 1 0 7 2 1 9 3 2 Japan 3 1 . 8 3 3 . 6 1 3 . 9 4 . 5 3 . 0 4 . 2 9 . 0 Sour ce: 1) Z u r b r ugg, C. (2002) , “Ur b an Sol i d W a ste M a nagem e nt in L o w- I n co m e Countr i es of Asia How to Cope with the Gar b age Crisis” Presented for: Scientific Co m m i ttee on Proble m s of th e E nvir onm ent ( S COPE) Ur ban So lid W a ste Managem e nt Review Session, Dur b an, South Afr i ca, Novem b er 2002 2) M i nistry of the E nvir o n m ent, Jap a n ( 2006) , “( Heisei 17 nendo Haikibutsu no Koui ki I dou T a isaku Kentou Chosa oy obi Haikibutsu nado J unkan Riy oury ou Jittai C hosa Houk okush o (2005 fisc al y e ar report of survey on response for wider - area m ove m e nt of wast e and current situat ion of quantity in c i rcular use of wast e and other m a teri als)” 1 C. V i svanathan and T . Nor bu ( 2006) “Reduce, Reuse and Recy cle: T h e 3R s in South Asia” pr esented at 3R South Asia E xper t W o rksh op, Kath m a ndu, Nepal, August 30 th to Septem ber 1 st , 2006 2 Glawe, U. , V i svan athan C. , Ala m gir , M . ( 2005) : Solid W a ste M a nage m e n t in Least Developed Asian Countr i es – A Co m p ar ative Analy sis”, International Conference on Integrat e d Solid W a ste Man a ge m e nt in Southeast Asian Cities, 5-7 July , Si e m Reap, Ca m bodia. 3 Glawe, U. , V i svan athan C. , Ala m gir , M . ( 2005) : Solid W a ste M a nage m e n t in Least Developed Asian Countr i es – A Co m p ar ative Analy sis”, International Conference on Integrat e d Solid W a ste Man a ge m e nt in Southeast Asian Cities, 5-7 July , Si e m Reap, Ca m bodia. 4 C. V i svanathan and T . Nor bu ( 2006) 9
16. T a ble 4-2 A dvantages and disadvant ages of treatm ent technologies Treatme n t technologies Ad va nt age s Di sad v an ta ge s Inci neratio n • R e duct i o n of wast e vol um e and w e i g h t • Accepta bility for all waste types • Heat rec o very pot e n t i a l • Public oppos ition, la rge r s p ace a n d foo t prin t requ ired • Hi g h i n vest m e nt an d o p erat i o n c o st s • Form at i on of di o x i n s a n d fu rans l i nke d t o seriou s h ealth p r ob le m s including ca ncer • High m a in ten a n ce, testing and rep a ir costs • Vu l n erab ility to fu tu re st ringen t em issio n s standa rds Aut o clave Di si nfect i o n • Enc o urage s re use a n d recycli ng • Co mmercially av ailab l e in v a ryin g si zes fr om des k t o p t o i n du st ri al si ze • Lo w i n vest m e nt an d o p erat i n g c o st s • Ease of op er ati o n • C r eat i on o f re s i due t h at i s l e ss hazardous tha n incine ration • In ab ility to ch an g e waste vo lume an d waste a ppea r ance • Lack o f su itab ility fo r so m e waste typ e s e.g. low level r adi ation, toxic cont ami n ant • Pro d u ct i o n of unc ha ract eri z e d ai r em i ssi ons a n d od o r pr obl em s Microwa v e Di si nfect i o n • Si gni fi cant vol um e reduct i o n • Abse nce o f l i q ui d di sc har g es • Hi g h i n vest m e nt co st and i n creased waste weig ht • Lack o f su itab ility fo r so m e waste Ty p e s. Po t e n tial to ex po se wo rk ers to c ontam inated s h re dder • Pro d u ct i o n of unc ha ract eri z e d ai r em issions Ch em ica l Di si nfect i o n • Signi ficant wa ste volum e reduction • Ab ility to m a k e waste unrec o gnizable and easy t o us e • Wast e deo d o ri zat i on • No com bust i o n by - p r o duct s • Possi ble toxic by-products i n wastewater • Lack o f su itab ility fo r so m e waste typ e s • Pro d u ct i o n of unc ha ract eri z e d ai r e m issions • Need for chem ical storage a n d use Electron Bea m Gun Tech nol ogy • Wast e vol um e red u ct i o n ( 2 0 % ) • No t o xi c em i s si ons o r di scha r g e (exce p t f o r sm al l am ount s o f ozo n e ) • A room te m p erature process a n d not hi n g i s a d de d e.g. steam, water, chemic als, etc • Well-au t o m a te d techno log y an d requ ires little o p e rat o r tim e • High investm e nt costs and operation costs • Shields and sa fety m easures a r e necessary t o p r e v ent w o r k ers f r om i oni z i ng ra di at i o n Plasm a pyrolysis • Sui t a bl e fo r al l t y pes of wast e an d resu lts i n redu ctio n s up to 80 -9 0% in vol um e and i n wei g ht • Su itab l e for v e ry larg e ho sp itals and reg i o n a l treatmen t facilities • Still at th e d e mo n s t r atio n scal e Source: V i s v anath an & Ad hikari (2 00 6), Origin al sourc e : Healthcar e w i thout Harm (20 01); W H O (199 9) 13
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